Before reading the article:
On Feb. 1, Gov. Ralph Northam of Virginia became the subject of intense national scrutiny when his 1984 medical school yearbook page surfaced featuring a photograph of a man in blackface standing beside another dressed in Ku Klux Klan robes. Mr. Northam initially apologized for being in the photograph, then denied that either figure was him, and later went on to admit that he once darkened his face with shoe polish for a Michael Jackson tribute costume for a dance contest that same year.
Since then, other instances of blackface by various leaders in Virginia government have come to light. Mark Herring, the state’s attorney general, admitted that he wore blackface as an undergraduate in 1980. And, later it emerged that Thomas K. Norment Jr., the majority leader in the Virginia Senate, oversaw the 1968 publication of the Virginia Military Institute yearbook, which is full of blackface and racial slurs.
Jacey Fortin writes, “The blackface revelations revived painful memories of Virginia’s disturbing history on race: centuries of slavery, decades of segregation and racial inequalities that still persist.”
Look at these Upshot survey results displaying American attitudes and experiences with this racist practice.
• What’s your reaction to the survey results?
• Which survey was most informative?
• What further questions do you have about the issue?
Now, read the article, “Beyond College Campuses and Public Scandals, a Racist Tradition Lingers,” and answer the following questions:
1. According to Richard Fausset and Campbell Robertson, the authors of the article, “It has been a week of waking up.” What do the authors mean by this? What evidence do they provide to support this claim?
2. While Mr. Northam’s yearbook has gotten a lot of attention in the media, how common are incidents of white people dressing in blackface today, according to the authors?
3. Blackface has its historical roots in the 1830s. How have the uses of blackface changed and evolved since then?
4. Why have college fraternities and sororities been a common setting for white people dressing in blackface? How do the authors explain this phenomena?
5. What are some ways that African-American students have responded to incidents of blackface on college campuses? Which do you believe have been particularly effective?
6. According to the article, how have some white people defended their use of blackface? Do you believe that the use of blackface by white people can ever be “totally innocent” or be seen as “a tribute to the person being imitated?”
7. The article concludes:
Eric Lott, an expert on blackface minstrelsy and a cultural historian at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, who is white, called the practice “indefensible,” given its roots in dehumanizing attitudes “rooted in the traffic in black bodies and slavery.”
And yet, despite the pain and the punishment, some white people seem inescapably drawn to it. “It’s just one of the ways, theatrically and in everyday life, that white Americans appear to handle their relationship to the color line,” Dr. Lott said. “And I’m not sure how you deal with that.”
What does Mr. Lott mean by his statement? Do you agree?
Finally, tell us more about what you think:
— What is your reaction to the article? What did you learn about the role of blackface in American life? Return to the surveys of American attitudes in the beginning of this piece; how do your experiences and attitudes compare to those of other Americans?
— How big a problem is blackface in America? What does the continued use of blackface tell us about the United States?
— Do you think Mr. Northam and the other Virginia politicians who have admitted to dressing in blackface in their pasts should resign from political office? Why or why not?
— What should be done to address the continuing use of blackface — particularly on campuses and universities? Should blackface be explicitly banned at all schools?
— In his Opinion piece, “Blackface Is the Tip of the Iceberg,” Jamelle Bouie writes:
… any collective reckoning with racism that comes out of this moment must go beyond the personal and offensive to the unequal depths. We should care about racist imagery, but we should care even more about our still-segregated society.
Do you agree? What might a “collective reckoning” that goes beyond caring about racist imagery look like in American society?
Why Won’t Blackface Go Away? It’s Part of America’s Troubled Cultural Legacy
今天东方心经挂彩图【夕】【阳】【西】【沉】，【昏】【黄】【的】【天】【幕】【下】，【那】【名】【裨】【将】【带】【领】【着】【五】【千】【名】【精】【锐】【缅】【军】，【一】【齐】【鼓】【噪】【呐】【喊】【着】【冲】【出】【工】【事】，【向】【正】【在】【行】【进】【的】【唐】【军】【战】【阵】【中】【最】【前】【面】【的】【火】【铳】【兵】，【疾】【速】【冲】【去】。 【见】【到】【缅】【军】【冲】【出】【工】【事】，【向】【自】【已】【鼓】【噪】【冲】【来】，【唐】【军】【军】【阵】【立】【即】【停】【住】【了】【脚】【步】，【随】【即】【摆】【开】【阵】【型】，【准】【备】【迎】【敌】。 “【预】【备】！” “【放】！” “【砰】【砰】【砰】【砰】！。。。” 【随】
【第】0356【章】：【全】【书】【完】：【婚】【礼】 “【你】【被】【解】【雇】【了】。”【穆】【清】【进】【来】【后】，【看】【也】【不】【看】【马】【自】【强】【等】【董】【事】，【反】【而】【先】【拿】【负】【责】【财】【物】【的】【老】【王】【开】【刀】。 【此】【时】【的】【穆】【清】【霸】【气】【外】【漏】，【往】【日】【受】【尽】【了】【这】【些】【董】【事】【的】【窝】【囊】【气】，【今】【天】【终】【于】【扬】【眉】【吐】【气】。 【来】【到】【了】【张】【晨】【身】【边】，【穆】【清】【高】【傲】【的】【像】【天】【鹅】：“【我】【一】【直】【想】【不】【通】，【四】【海】【集】【团】【是】【我】【的】，【我】，【穆】【清】，【作】【为】【四】【海】【集】【团】【的】【老】
【顾】【温】【玖】【忍】【下】【来】【了】，【事】【实】【上】【这】【也】【不】【是】【第】【一】【次】【了】。 【这】【些】【小】【孩】【用】【小】【石】【子】【丢】【她】，【瞥】【见】【她】【狼】【狈】【躲】【开】【的】【样】【子】【便】【哄】【堂】【大】【笑】。 【他】【们】【这】【种】【人】【啊】，【本】【身】【便】【是】【扶】【不】【上】【墙】【的】【一】【摊】【泥】，【他】【们】【不】【会】【想】【着】【上】【进】，【而】【是】【把】【其】【他】【人】【也】【拽】【进】【跟】【他】【们】【一】【样】，【甚】【至】【比】【他】【们】【还】【要】【深】【的】【泥】【潭】【里】。 【顾】【温】【玖】【年】【纪】【虽】【小】，【但】【她】【深】【谙】【这】【个】【道】【理】。 【小】【小】【的】【她】，【实】【际】【上】
“【卧】【槽】，【这】【么】【多】【船】？” “【运】【气】【有】【点】【衰】【啊】！” 【天】【梭】【等】【人】【也】【都】【看】【到】【了】【不】【远】【处】【的】【海】【盗】【船】。 【一】【艘】【体】【长】【五】【百】【多】【米】【的】【大】【船】【上】，【画】【满】【了】【骷】【髅】【的】【模】【样】。 【尤】【其】【是】【船】【帆】【之】【上】，【更】【是】【有】【个】【巨】【大】【的】，【血】【淋】【淋】【的】【骷】【髅】【头】，【远】【远】【看】【去】【给】【人】【一】【种】【强】【烈】【的】【视】【觉】【冲】【击】。 【除】【了】【这】【艘】【大】【船】【之】【外】，【两】【旁】【还】【有】【四】【艘】【五】【十】【米】【左】【右】【的】【小】【船】。 【都】【是】【漆】今天东方心经挂彩图275 “【今】【天】【我】【们】【继】【续】【来】【进】【行】【很】【有】【意】【义】【的】【晨】【读】【哦】，【然】【后】【重】【点】【内】【容】【依】【旧】【是】【来】【学】【习】【并】【且】【朗】【诵】【我】【们】【的】【党】【章】【哦】.【你】【做】【好】【准】【备】【了】【吗】，【锐】【雯】**，【要】【是】【准】【备】【好】【了】，【我】【们】【就】【开】【始】【吧】.”【林】【檬】【星】【同】【志】【对】【着】【那】【锐】【雯】**【这】【么】【的】【说】【道】【的】，【样】【子】【是】【很】【认】【真】【很】【严】【肃】【的】【呢】，【一】【点】【都】【没】【有】【开】【玩】【笑】【的】【意】【思】【哦】 “【我】【真】【是】【太】【喜】【欢】【这】【个】【活】【动】【了】，【我】【早】【早】【的】
“【学】【长】【们】【好】，【我】【叫】**【言】。”【见】【众】【人】【都】【自】【我】【介】【绍】【了】，**【言】【也】【不】【得】【不】【跟】【着】【象】【征】【性】【的】【自】【我】【介】【绍】【了】【一】【下】。 【不】【过】【他】【对】【他】【们】【的】【名】【字】【一】【点】【也】【不】【感】【兴】【趣】，【他】【比】【较】【感】【兴】【趣】【的】【还】【是】【苏】【陌】【寒】【手】【上】【提】【着】【的】【早】【餐】。 【苏】【陌】【寒】【当】【然】【有】【注】【意】【到】**【言】【那】【直】【勾】【勾】【的】【眼】【神】，【于】【是】【他】【毫】【不】【客】【气】【地】【将】【他】【的】【那】【群】【室】【友】【给】【撵】【到】【了】【一】【边】。 【刚】【才】【要】【不】【是】【为】【了】【在】
【皇】【甫】【超】【博】【的】【等】【待】【没】【有】【多】【长】【时】【间】，【也】【就】【是】【作】【出】【决】【定】【后】【的】【第】【二】【天】，【皇】【甫】【超】【博】【与】【郭】【嘉】【在】【吃】【午】【饭】【的】【时】【候】，【便】【看】【到】【史】【阿】【匆】【匆】【忙】【忙】【从】【外】【冲】【了】【进】【来】，【很】【快】【他】【便】【跑】【到】【皇】【甫】【超】【博】【面】【前】，【行】【了】【一】【礼】，【然】【后】【急】【切】【的】【说】【道】：“【大】【王】，【徐】【荣】【将】【军】【急】【报】！” 【皇】【甫】【超】【博】【猛】【的】【一】【惊】，【连】【忙】【问】【道】：“【讲】！” “【今】【日】【一】【早】，【徐】【荣】【将】【军】【领】【收】【到】【昌】【邑】【城】【派】【人】【送】